Gender Representation in the Country Music Industry
In a 2015 interview with Russ Penuell of Country Aircheck, a country radio consultant spoke candidly about how female artists factor into the genre format’s airplay rotation formula. Not only did he caution against playing songs by too many female artists in a one-hour rotation, but he also claimed that playing their songs back-to-back was against the rules. As the genre’s leading female artists responded to the consultant’s comments, industry veteran Lon Helton admitted that this was precisely how country has functioned for decades (Keel 2015):
“[S]ince the 1960s program directors have been telling people not to play two women back-to-back. It has nothing to do with sexism. It has to do with the fact that through the years, you have had very few hits by women, so you want to spread them out a little bit because there are fewer of them.”
My research has shown that country radio developed this rotation practice in the 1960s as a way to structure their airplay time as a result of a pre-existing gender imbalance in the industry. But this ultimately initiated a practice of segregating music into distinct gender-defined patterns that favour male artists, instead of encouraging and fostering new female artists in the genre. This gender construct, perpetuated by the industry and embedded in the broader country music discourse, has served as a powerful exclusionary tool that has obscured and indeed limited the contributions of female artists.
Funded by a two-year Insight Development Grant from the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada, this project aims to raise awareness around issues of gender representation as they are shaped by and relate to country music identity and culture between 1944 and 2016. The proposed project will deconstruct the gender politics that have governed the genre, re-contextualize the discussion surrounding country music’s culture and identity and explore the ways in which it has dictated industry practices. In so doing, this project will discover the role that female artists have played in shaping country music culture and challenge the gender construct that underpins this narrative.
Watson, Jada. “Gender on the Billboard Hot Country Songs Chart, 1996-2016.” Popular Music & Society 42, no. 5 (2019): 538-60.
Watson, Jada. 2020. “Country Radio Has Ignored Female Artists for Years. And we have the data to prove it.” NBC News Think, 17 February.
Watson, Jada. 2020. “Inequality on Country Radio: 2019 in Review.” SongData Reports, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, 17 February. Prepared in partnership with CMT’s Equal Play Campaign. Associated Briefs: (1) Mediabase, Country Airplay Report Brief, (2) Billboard Country Airplay Charts Brief, (3) Billboard Country Streaming Brief, (4) Billboard Country Digital Song Sales Brief, (5) Billboard Hot Country Songs Brief.
Watson, Jada. 2019. “Gender Representation on Country Format Radio: A Study of Spins Across Dayparts.” SongData Reports, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, 6 December. Prepared in consultation with WOMAN Nashville. Report Brief available.
Watson, Jada. 2019. “Gender Representation on Canadian Country Format Radio: A Study of Published Reports from 2005-2018.” SongData Reports, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, 6 September. Report Brief available.
Watson, Jada. 2019. “Gender Representation on Billboard’s Country Airplay Chart: A Study of Weekly Charts from January 2018 to July 2019.” SongData Reports, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, 2 August. Prepared in consultation with WOMAN Nashville.
Watson, Jada. 2019. “Gender Representation on Country Format Radio: A Study of Published Reports from 2000-2018.” SongData Reports, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, 26 April. Prepared in consultation with WOMAN Nashville. Report Brief available.
Citations in Public Reports
Recording Academy Task Force. 2019. Final Report of the Recording Academy Task Force on Diversity and Inclusion. Grammy.com, 12 December.
Citations in Legal Briefs
2018 Quadrennial Regulatory Review — Review of the Commission’s Broadcast Ownership Rules and Other Rules Adopted Pursuant to Section 202 of the Telecommunications Act of 1996, Joint Comment of musicFirst Coalition and Future of Music Coalition, MB Docket No. 18-349 (Apr. 29, 2019).
“Women of Country: Country Music Radio Has a Problem – What’s at Stake?” episode in Southword series, produced by Red Clay Media, 17 February 2020.
Invited Public Talks
“What Can Big Data Tell Us About Music Genres?” Invited talk at Carleton University’s X-Lab Brown Bag Lunch Series (Ottawa, ON), November 13, 2019.
“Looking for Tomatoes through Digital Humanities: Using Digital Tools to Investigate Inclusion and Diversity in Country Music Culture.” University of Ottawa’s Women in Innovation Series (Ottawa, ON), October 29, 2019.
“‘The stars might lie, but the numbers never do’: What Big Data Tells Us About Inequalities in Genre Cultures.” Invited speaker at Change the Conversation. Sponsored by Driven Communications; BMI (Nashville, TN), October 17, 2019.
“Truth in Numbers? Representation of Women in Country Music Culture.” Invited speaker at Middle Tennessee State University (Murfreesboro, TN), October 17, 2019.
Jada Watson. “From Public Humanities to Social Remembering: Big Data and the Digital Redlining of Women in Country Music Culture.” Paper accepted for DH2020; Ottawa, ON, July 2020. [cancelled due to Covid-19]
Jada Watson. « La culture country et la perpétuation de l’effacement des femmes : Les méthodes de Billboard et la diversité sur la liste de classement Hot Country Songs ». Paper presented at the annual conference of the International Association for the Study of Popular Music-Canada Branch; Montreal, QC, May 2019.
Jada Watson. “The Endangerment of Female Representation in Country Music Culture: Changing Billboard Methodologies and Ecological Diversity on the Hot Country Songs Chart.” Paper presented at PopCon at the Museum of Popular Culture; Seattle, WA, April 2019.
Jada Watson. “Our time has come, your time is up: The Song Suffragettes’ March for Gender Equality in Country Music.” Paper to be Presented at the Society for American Music; New Orleans, March 2019. Portions of this project presented at the International Country Music Conference; Nashville, June 2019.
Jada Watson. “Discographic Metadata as a Research Resource for Studying Popular Music Genres: Introducing the SongData Project.” Paper presented at the joint conference of the New England and New York State/Ontario Chapters of the Music Library Association, with the Quebec Chapter of the Canadian Association of Music Libraries, Archives and Documentation Centres; McGill University, November 2018.
WOMAN Nashville. 2018. Consulted on data analysis for WOMAN Nashville.
This research was supported by the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada.